What Raw Materials Used in Powder Coatings?

Apr 21, 2022

The main raw material components used in powder coatings include:

1. Resins are the key component of powder coatings. The range of resins used is increasing steadily in an attempt to meet the more demanding needs of new market sectors.

Thermosetting Powders Thermoplastic Powders
Epoxy Polyvinyl Chloride
Epoxy-Polyester Hybrid Polyolefins
Urethane Polyester Nylon
Polyester TGIC Polyester
Acrylic Polyvinylidene Fluoride

2. Curing agents are used according to the type of resin system employed and the final properties required of the coating

3. Accelerators are used to increase the cure reaction rate

4. Pigments are generally solid particulate materials such as titanium dioxide or carbon black

5. Fillers are used to reduce the cost of the coating formulation and / or to improve specific properties such as flow, surface texture, lubricity, etc. Common fillers are barytes, calcite, mica, talc, whiting, and wollastonite

6. Extenders, such as aluminum silicate, are used to provide opacity and act as a filler

7. Degassing agents are particularly important in low-bake systems. They are used to eliminate / dissipate gas bubbles that may cause film porosity and embrittlement or poor finish

8. Dry Flow agents improve the free flow of powders within the production delivery systems

9. Flow agents enhance film properties and minimize/eliminate surface defects by improving the flow of the molten coating. Examples of flow agents include polyacrylates, silicones, surfactants, and fluorinated alkyl esters

10. Matting agents are used to reduce the gloss of the cured film

11. Texturing agents are used to control/enhance the gloss level of cured films

12. Rheological additives provide viscosity control to molten coatings for improved edge coverage or for textured surface effects

13. Waxes are added to the formulation to provide slip, hardness, scratch and mar resistance, and to act as free flow powders and anti-bridging agents in processing

14. Tribo-charging additives such as antioxidants and light stabilizers are frequently used in powder coatings. Depending on their composition, tribo-static powders require additives, such as HALS to improve their charge ability in addition to their light stabilization properties.

15. Heat Stabilizers are required to be thermally stable and non-volatile during high-temperature powder extrusion and curing processes (electric and direct-fired gas ovens), and to show no discoloration. Various classes of antioxidants have different thermal stabilization mechanisms. High resistance against UV degradation is necessary for all exterior applications. This is achieved through a synergistic combination of UV absorbers and HALS.

The raw powder coating materials are generally mixed dry and then fed into an extruder for melt mixing. Once cooled, the extrudate is then chipped and ground into the final product. The chips are ground to a very specific particle size distribution depending on the application.

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